This contributed volume emphasizes the potential of stem cells to be pertained in the urology field and attempts to disclose the history of the field up to the latest advances to date. It gathers the majority of papers that advocate utilizing stem cells as the best option for treating, diagnosing, and managing diseases related to urological system. This book covers a broad spectrum of issues, including mesenchymal stem cells, cancer stem cells, organoids, regenerative medicine, erectile dysfunction, bladder dysfunction, and kidney transplant. From several decades ago, as characteristic features of stem cells have been explored, it has attracted a great amount of interests. In view of their multiple capacity of differentiating into various lineages, many studies were conducted to assess their beneficial potential. Despite considerable progress into applying stem cells in animal models, for translating into clinical practices there are several obstacles to be resolved. However, few clinical studies have been performed in each field and outcomes were delightful. There is an ongoing hope for stem cells to someday, be the mainstream treatments of urological diseases, although stem cells treatments already exist they are not well-known. Indeed, this book is essential for anyone who is working with the purpose of employing stem cells to treat the urological diseases and discusses at length the latest advances as well as their limitations.