This work focuses on the physiologic approach to the understanding and management of oesophageal disease. This is coupled with the utilization of minimally invasive thoracoscopic and laparoscopic surgery as a first option in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. oesophageal motility disorders, oesophageal diverticula, and benign oesophageal tumours. Open surgery is reserved for the initial approach to complicated oesophageal disease, reopeation of previously failed procedures, or oesophageal replacement for end-stage benign disease. This volume aims to present the current status of a changing approach to the field of oesophageal surgery.