This book addresses researchers, practitioners, and policy makers interested in understanding the financial implications of mega-disaster risks as well as in seeking possible solutions with regard to governance, the allocation of financial risk, and resilience. The first part of this book takes the example of Japan and studies the impact of mega earthquakes on government finance, debt positions of private household and businesses, capital markets, and investor behavior by way of economic modeling as well as case studies from recent major disasters. In Japan, the probability of a mega earthquake hitting dense agglomerations is very high. Like other large-scale natural disasters, such events carry systemic risks, i.e., they can trigger disruptions endangering the stability of the social, economic, and political order. The second part looks at the experience of the Japanese government as a provider of disaster-risk finance and an active partner in international collaboration. It concludes with an analysis of the general characteristics of systemic risk and approaches to improve resilience.