This book mainly focuses on advances made over the past 10 years regarding the exposure, metabolism, transformation, toxicity, molecular mechanism and biomarkers for emerging chemicals in humans. A hot topic in the field of environmental health, the term emerging chemicals refers to a class of compounds that are frequently encountered and potentially harmful to the natural environment and human health. They are also the preferred target substances for future environmental control measures. The list of emerging chemicals includes pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDC), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and nanomaterials. However, the environmental and health hazard characteristics of many emerging chemicals remain unclear. The aim of this book is to stimulate further research in new directions by providing novel and provocative insights into the exposure assessment of and potential mechanisms regarding emerging chemicals in humans. It also offers a state-of-the-art report on recent discoveries concerning emerging chemicals and where the field is headed.