This book compiles selected articles presented at the International Conference on Biotechnology & Biological Sciences, BIOSPECTRUM 2017, organized by the Department of Biotechnology, University of Engineering & Management, Kolkata. Focusing on biotechnology-based analysis and intervention to address certain human diseases, the book includes a holistic discourse on disease profiling, molecular level analysis of diseases, and non-invasive medical interventions. It features articles on non-invasive treatment of iron deficiency anemia with iron nanoparticles novel diagnosis methods based on microarray data analysis using machine learning techniques like artificial neural network for early detection and treatment of cancer and drug discovery for preventing the growth of human leukemic cells. Further, the book sheds light on in silico drug design using lipopeptides, and identifying the binding sites for their corresponding ligands. Presenting the concepts of the design of potent and safe antimicrobial compounds to fight multi drug resistant pathogens, it also includes interesting reviews on the design and development of various non-invasive methods, such as multi NIR wavelength probes to identify the risk areas in the diabetic foot at an early stage and a low-cost cochlear implant prototype designed and developed from commercial off the-shelf components to empower the hearing impaired. The book appeals to students, academics and researchers in a wide range of subject areas, including biotechnology, life sciences, medicine and cancer research.