This book highlights different natural products that are derived from the plants and microbes that have shown potential as the lead compounds against infectious diseases and cancer. Natural products represent an untapped source of strikingly diverse chemotypes with novel mechanisms of action and the potential to serve as anticancer and anti-infective agents. The book discusses a range of biotechnologically valuable bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that have been derived from plant and microorganisms from various ecological niches. It also reviews the latest developments in the field of genomics, bioinformatics and industrial fermentation for harnessing the microbial products for commercial applications. In turn, the books closing section reviews important biotechnological applications of various natural products. Combining the expertise of specialists in this field, the books goal is to promote the further investigation of natural sources for the development of standardized, safe and effective therapies.