About 15 years ago, we asked ourselves why the methods developed by the research institutions for the management of pests were almost not used by small landholder farmers. It seemed obvious to us that conventional pest control called Integrated Pest Management was based on a reductionist approach. In reviewing the literature on the subject, we found that our concern was not new or unique. The agreement of some authors with our ideas reinforced our efforts to find a holistic approach to pest management. We took two central ideas to develop the holistic approach: First, pest management actions must put the farmer at the center of the system. Second, pest management must consider not only both pests but the other important components of the system in question. This approach based on the farmers and the systems in which they are immersed, is called Holistic Pest Management or HPM. In this book, I present the philosophy and practice of HPM, a new paradigm of pest management.