This volume presents novel concepts to help physicians and health care providers better understand the thought processes and approaches used in clinical decision-making and how we develop those skills as we transition from being a medical student to post-graduate trainee to independent practitioner. Approaches presented range from simple rules of thumb, pattern recognition, and heuristics, to more formulaic methods such as standard operating procedures, checklists, evidence-based medicine, mathematical modeling, and statistics. Ways to recognize and manage errors and how our decision-making can be improved, are also discussed. An Introduction to Medical Decision-Making presents several innovative techniques to allow the reader to use the principles presented and integrate the ethical, humanistic and social aspects of decision-making with the pragmatic and knowledge-based aspects of clinical medicine. It also highlights how our thinking processes, emotions, and biases affect decision-making. This invaluable resource will allow students and physicians to evaluate and critically discuss their decisions objectively to become more efficient and effective, and maximize the quality of care they provide.