This book discusses a wide range of investigations and practice-oriented advances in pulmonary medicine and critical care. Pulmonary diseases are a major cause of hospitalization and mortality, affecting millions of people worldwide. Addressing a range of topics, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, and lung cancer, the book offers insights into the disease mechanisms and risk factors, along with practical aspects concerning the maintenance of quality of life, adherence to therapy, and palliative treatment and care. Further, it explores diagnostic and treatment approaches to respiratory dysfunction and respiratory failure, highlighting the beneficial effects of good sleep quality in chronic pulmonary conditions and lung transplant patients. The book also presents novel experimental research on the cellular voltage-gated sodium channels in the mechanism of pathological cough, which is particularly relevant for future targeted antitussive therapy. Lastly, it addresses the epidemiological aspects of pulmonary infections. As such, this book is a valuable resource for medical scholars, clinicians, family physicians, and other professionals seeking to improve the management of respiratory diseases.