This book presents expert descriptions of the successful application of operations research in both the private and the public sector, including in logistics, transportation, product design, production planning and scheduling, and areas of social interest. Each chapter is based on fruitful collaboration between researchers and companies, and company representatives are among the co-authors. The book derives from a 2017 call by the Italian Operations Research Society (AIRO) for information from members on their activities in promoting the use of quantitative techniques, and in particular operations research techniques, in society and industry. A booklet based on this call was issued for the annual AIRO conference, but it was felt that some of the content was of such interest that it deserved wider dissemination in more detailed form. This book is the outcome. It equips practitioners with solutions to real-life decision problems, offers researchers examples of the practical application of operations research methods, and provides Masters and PhD students with suggestions for research development in various fields.