This book presents the state-of-the-art of Terahertz spectroscopy. It is a modern source for a beginners and researcher interested in THz spectroscopy. The basics and physical background of THz spectroscopy and technology are explained, and important applications are described. The book presents the highlights of scientific research in the field of THz science and provides an excellent overview of the field and future directions of research. Over the last decade the field of terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing fields of spectroscopy with large impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements in this frequency range. In solids and liquids terahertz radiation is at resonance with both phonon modes and hydrogen bonding modes which makes it an ideal tool to study the interaction between molecules in a unique way, thus opening a wealth of opportunities for research in physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and pharmaceuticals. This book provides an easy access to scientists, engineers and students alike who want to understand the theory and applications of modern terahertz spectroscopy.